Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Question: Depict about the Digital Media Technology of Information Society. Answer: 1: Habits in electronic world speaks to what conduct is socially commendable in an on the web or propelled situation. While respectability is imparted into society, conduct in advancement is a really late thought. The gauges of conduct that apply when bestowing over the Internet or casual networks or contraptions are not equivalent to those applying when passing on in individual or by sound, (for instance, telephone) or videophone, (for instance, Skype video). It is a social code of framework correspondence. Ordinary rules for electronic sends notwithstanding Usenet, for instance, keeping up a key good ways from fire wars alongside spam is predictable transversely over most mediums and gatherings. Another principle is to keep away from writing in all tops or unpleasantly growing content for complement, which is believed to be what, should be called shouting or hollering. Other normally shared centers, for instance, remembering that one's posts are (or can without a very remarkable stret ch be made) open, are all things considered normally appreciated by distributers of Web pages and blurbs to Usenet, notwithstanding the way that this fundamental is somewhat versatile depending upon the earth(Berleur, 2010). 2: Incredible correspondence is indispensable for the general prosperity of your business. Inside and external made and oral correspondence addresses the degree of cleaned system in your association. Tactless business correspondence can hurt client associations, lower soul among delegates and unfavorably impact your association's reputation. Clarify manages in making for agents on what is reasonable and expected in a wide range of correspondence to avoid the aftereffects of horrendous correspondence. There are different sorts of correspondence which are viewed as unsuitable some of them are recorded underneath: Email Composed correspondence Telephonic correspondence Correspondence over online networking Correspondence through sending instant messages This sort of correspondence is viewed as unsatisfactory on the grounds that the vast majority of the miscommunication happens when this kinds of correspondence takes place(Yergensen, 2007). 3: Correspondence in web based systems administration may be dangerous for relationship and association. For example, if people use correspondence applications unfavorably, for instance, posting damaging, opposing words against people, they are spreading disdain and antagonistic vibe between others that moreover contributed in breaking various associations around the world. Also, to the extent associations, a couple of individuals are so rude in internet organizing considering the way that they can cover their certifiable names and post anything they need to naughtiness others, the issue is that they are doing this for simply fun and that happens especially between adolescents (Burke, 2016). What's more, a couple of individuals can bamboozle others in internet organizing, for example, they are imagining that they really think about it or love others especially between youngers just to get advantage from them and they can without a very remarkable stretch constrain them which it contribu tes additionally to break various associations around the world and lose trust in online networking(Page, 2014). References Berleur, J. J., 2010. What Kind of Information Society? Administration, Virtuality, Surveillance, Sustainability,. outlined ed. s.l.:Springer Science Business Media. Burke, R. J., 2016. Corporate Reputation: Managing Opportunities and Threats. s.l.:CRC Press. Page, R., 2014. Investigating Language and Social Media: A Student Guide. s.l.:Routledge. Yergensen, B., 2007. The Rhetorical Interlude: Examining Key Film Speeches in Cultural/Historical Context. Diary of the Communication Speech Theater Association of North Dakota, 20(7), pp. 1-86.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
1.0 Introduction Innovation is an improvement over what was accessible previously. Individuals and associations frequently look for innovation since it facilitates errands and encourages creation. With the suitable innovation, complex errands are streamlined. Man has utilized innovation to accomplish beforehand unrealistic undertakings: stroll on the moon; make unnaturally conceived children; treat hazardous maladies; foresee climate; send data over the world in a moment or two, and so on. Imprint Behrsin and Bill Twibill underline the significance of innovation in business when they compose that, Visionaries, for example, retail mammoth Wal-Mart and shipment pioneer FedEx have utilized innovation not exclusively to take care of calculated issues, yet to hold onto new chances, openÃ¢ new channels to advertise and make new plans of action they have constrained their rivals to receive. Wal-Mart looked to innovation to improve flexibly chain the executives and take a serious edge. FedEx looked to the open doors innovation offered to deal with the extentÃ¢ of its development without figuring out how to robotize businessÃ¢ forms. At the time its SuperTracker application costÃ¢ a gigantic $100 million to grow yet the speculation hasÃ¢ took care of many occasions more than (4). The development of innovation frequently goes with the creation of hardware which is utilized to achieve the necessary errand. For example, propels in data innovation and correspondence have achieved cell phones, which are a takeoff from the fixed lines in the past which are associated by wires. Charles F. MacCormack reviews that, As far as individuals sway, innovation has generally changed the manner in which we work together. Fifteen years back, correspondences with our field association involved faxes, best case scenario, and all the more frequently mail dispatches. A trade of data could actually take a long time to completeÃ¢â¬ ¦ Now we use email, voice and video conferencing to impart in minutes (1). As of late, there have been propels in different parts of innovation. In any case, it is critical to express that while innovation is regularly hailed for its numerous advantages, the wonder can likewise unfavorably influence organizations. This paper investigates this twofold sided nature of innovation as it influences organizations. 1.2 Thesis articulation Innovation is critical to people over the world as a result of the numerous advantages which it presents. From numerous points of view, innovation has been utilized to tackle issues confronting individuals in different social orders. This paper analyzes the impact of innovation on organizations. On the off chance that clearly innovation carries a ton of good to the different organizations which individuals are engaged with, what are the issues made by innovation? As it were, this paper additionally investigates the manners by which innovation unfavorably influences organizations. 1.3 Benefits of innovation in business Speed In any case innovation is helpful to business since it accelerates the creation procedure. Speed is important in business since, when there are more items in a brief timeframe, benefit is expanded. In the printing of papers, fast machines are required to guarantee that large scale manufacturing of the papers is achieved in the short space of time inside which the papers are required. This applies to every single different business where items should be delivered or collected available to be purchased. Apparatus is significant. In pastry kitchens too, innovation is fundamental since human work is maintained a strategic distance from due to its wastefulness and a significant part of the work is robotized. For this situation, the mechanization by machines likewise guarantees that cleanliness. The effectiveness of machines can't be overemphasized now. When contrasted with human work, machines offer a more significant level of proficiency. With the fitting innovation in a pastry shop, mac hines can create a larger number of portions of bread than human exertion. Proficiency Aside from the creation procedure, innovation likewise guarantees speed in another measurement. In administration conveyance, candy machines are significant on the grounds that they serve individuals from the open quickly and keep away from the development of lines. Take the standard espresso candy machine. It would require some investment if individuals were served by a server. In any case, the espresso candy machine acknowledges money and offers the support at the dash of a catch. Candy machines are found in banks, under ground train stations, shopping centers, and so on. Additionally, it is essential to take note of that Automated Teller Machines (ATM) are a significant innovation that is helpful in the financial business. These ATM have facilitated the focused on set on banks by its abounding clients. With the utilization of ATM, bank clients can appreciate bother free self help. They possibly need the consideration of bank staff when they have an issue with the machine or if mis takes are created by the machine. The innovation of the ATM has empowered banks adapt to the remaining task at hand and guarantee that they can accomplish more in a brief timeframe. Along these lines B. Ives and S. L. Jarvenpaa note that innovation serves to grow business on the grounds that with the proper innovation they can take more requests and adapt to more clients. Rivalry As organizations endeavor to beat their opponents and rivals, the innovation utilized by these organizations is regularly a measuring stick for deciding pioneers in the business. Take the product business for example. Around the globe, Microsoft is an innovator in the business since it has the innovation that has made it remain there. Innovation is additionally significant in the wellbeing business. Because of specialization, a few clinics and research focuses are prestigious for the determination and treatment of some particular illnesses. They are pioneers in the business since they have the innovation to do as such. J. Bakos and M. E. Treacy demand that innovation is helpful to organizations as they manufacture their serious technique. Industry pioneers and mystery In business, the innovation which empowers one organization remain in the number one spot or more different contenders is regularly an all around left well enough alone. This organization will never impart that innovation to others since it will free its situation as an innovator in the business. In medication, the licenses for the production of specific medications are possessed by certain pharmaceutical organizations and they are not will to give it out. Sound innovation gives organizations an edge over rivals in the business. Across fringes Advances in data innovation have guaranteed that organizations are not, at this point limited to specific nations yet are allowed to be heard over the world. In the light of this, organizations can stretch out their limits to different nations of the world. Besides, banks also have exploited data innovation by building up a system of their branches the world over. This encourages moves inside the bank and furthermore with different banks on the planet. Data innovation additionally encourages electronic trade, where individuals can shop on the web and have the merchandise sent to them in the post. This is a nondescript exchange. In an examination, Steve MacFeely and Caitriona Obrien find that the profitability of firms that have email and a site is higher than the individuals who don't. The remote trade showcase just as the financial exchange likewise profits by data innovation. Today dealers in different pieces of the world can exchange it stock and bonds from their PCs in whatever p iece of the world since they are associated with the Internet. 1.4 Dysfunctions of innovation on business Excess Innovation represents various dangers to organizations. As a powerful idea, innovation is continually changing and improving. In different parts of human undertaking, there is consistently a drive to discover new techniques. At the point when this new innovation is formed and placed into utilization, it renders the past innovation excess and this has broad ramifications on business ventures which utilize the obsolete innovation. In any case, these organizations face the test of finding the present innovation. This includes a great deal of cost. Besides, the organizations utilizing antiquated innovation will free clients in light of the fact that the more current innovation will be progressively proficient. Over the long haul the benefit of the business will lessen. The photography business is a case of this marvel. With the presentation of advanced photography which guarantee moment printing of photos, old techniques for photography have gotten extremely disagreeable. Additional expense Innovation puts additional expense on organizations. With the presentation of innovation, organizations which need to stay up to date with it have to go through cash to prepare staff on the utilization of the new innovation. Innovation regularly requires extraordinary preparing. The other option is to utilize experts who are versed in the procedures of the new innovation. Utilizing these sorts of experts likewise puts a strain on the assets of the business. Organizations that need to remain above water need to stay aware of the patterns in the business and this is one of such-yet it has serious cost suggestions. Joblessness Innovation frequently causes extreme change and cause joblessness. With proper machines occasioned by innovation, numerous representatives are laid off work. This was an element of the mechanical upset. In any case, a similar circumstance applies here with the presentation of new innovation. The whole thought of innovation is to improve creation utilizing machines that limit cost however at long last expand benefit. Additionally, there is the thought of curiosity connected to innovation. In this way the wastefulness related with human work is disposed of. Administration conveyance Now and again innovation can't convey the advantages which are normal. Directors in different associations may have exclusive standard of innovation. Be that as it may, it can't delive by and large. Imprint Behrsin and Bill Twibill compose that, It is reasonable that organizations have come to doubt innovation. There are practically steady reports specifying theÃ¢ number of innovation - related undertakings that have fizzled toÃ¢ meet desires. Late research from KPMG sugges
Thursday, August 13, 2020
Gospel of Minimalism Religion is a complicated and sensitive subject for many. Even though we donât typically speak or write about religion, its presence seems to loom over each event we host. Curiosity is natural, so itâs inevitable: people often approach us and say things like, âItâs wonderful to see two guys spreading Jesus Christâs message.â Which is usually followed by another person saying, âItâs great to see a couple Buddhists sharing their story.â Or, âDid you know Muhammad was the original minimalist?â In a well-written, but unfortunately titled, newspaper article in Tennessee, we were recently said to be âspreading the gospel of less,â the connotation of which is a bit troubling. Even more troubling was a radio hostâs take in Oklahoma City when he referred to us as the âL. Ron Hubbard of minimalism.â (Thankfully he was joking.) Whatever your religious beliefs, we have no spiritual advice for you. The beautiful thing about minimalism, though, is it works whether youâre religious or not. We personally know minimalists who are Christian pastors, minimalists who are practicing Buddhists, minimalists who are atheists. We even know a minimalist rabbi. Because minimalism is a lifestyle that helps people question what things add value to their lives, it applies to any religionâ"or no religion at all. In fact, the two of us hold radically different religious beliefs. Our journeys toward simplicity, however, had nothing to do with religion; instead, it was a reaction to the discontentment we experienced after being steeped in consumerism for three decades. We live in a world in which many people have different beliefs, different faiths. But God or no God, we can all live more deliberately. Read this essay and 150 others in our new book, Essential.
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Mr. Whitney presented enlightening information regarding entrepreneurship, why it is important and how the private market or venture capitalist are so important in investing in entrepreneurs. Venture capital is changing the global economy as banks are not investing in businesses anymore other than lending funds. Wealth creation has changed due to the internet and today wealth creation is out pacing the wealth created by inheritance (M. Whitney, personal communication, May 21, 2016). An axiom from Mr. WhitneyÃ¢â¬â¢s company is networks create and disrupt net worth. As explained, networks bind things together, but they take away somewhere else. This can be illustrated in the railroad industry. The railroad created a network, which tied the east and west coast together, facilitating travel and movement of goods from coast to coast. However, the railroad industry disrupted net worth of the horse and buggy industry, as this mode of transportation was replaced. It is typical for o rganizations to follow a common business model within an industry but, if you assume that there is only one business model, then your organization gets disrupted and you are blindsided. Another idea presented was retail is a good indicator of market shifts, with three big trends portrayed in retail that is extended to every industry as a predictive indicator. One of these trends is consolidation, which we see companies buying up companies, therefore the customer base is getting smaller. ThisShow MoreRelatedEssay On Venture Capital834 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhat is Venture capital? Venture capital is financing that investors reach out to new businesses and little organizations that are accepted to have long-term achievement potential. For new businesses without accomplish capital markets, venture capital is a basic source of cash. 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Tuesday, May 12, 2020
While Athena was a friend of Greek heroes, she wasnt so helpful to women. The story of the weaving contest between Arachne and Athena is one of the most familiar myths about Athena, and its central theme is also popular. Greek mythology repeatedly hammers home the danger of comparing oneself with a goddess. The theme appears in the story of Cupid and Psyche, where Aphrodite is offended. While ultimately there is a happy ending, to avert Aphrodites wrath, Psyches family abandons her to death. In the mythological story of Niobe, Artemis punishes the mortal mother for boasting that she is a more fortunate mother than Artemis mother, Leto: Artemis destroys all Niobes children. The punishment Athena inflicts on her capable, but the merely mortal victim is more direct. If Arachne wants to claim to be a better weaver than Athena, so be it. Thats all shell ever be good for. Arachne Suffers a Metamorphosis The Roman poet Ovid writes about the metamorphosis Arachne suffers in his work on transformations (Metamorphoses): One at the loom so excellently skilld,That to the Goddess she refusd to yield, ( Ovid, Metamorphoses VI) In the myth, Athena challenges Arachne to a weaving contest in order to prove herself. The expert crafts goddess Athena is favorably impressed with Arachnes weaving of divine debaucheries: This the bright Goddess passionately movd,With envy saw, yet inwardly approvd.The scene of heavnly guilt with haste she tore,Nor longer the affront with patience bore;A boxen shuttle in her hand she took,And more than once Arachnes forehead struck. Athena cant tolerate the affront to her pride, though, so she turns Arachne into a spider doomed to weave forever. From the unfortunate spider-woman comes the name for the 8-legged creatures: arachnids.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
PERFORMANCE OF CARDBOARD CARTON FORMS Abstract: Cardboard carton forms (void boxes) are commonly used to form the void space between the bottom of grade beams and slabs over expansive soils. However, other than laboratory compression tests and 100% humidity tests, there is little documentation for the actual performance of these boxes in place. This paper summarizes field tests done in an attempt to simulate actual conditions to answer the following questions: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Do the boxes deteriorate at an acceptable rate? Does the wax coating or impregnation and a polyethylene vapor barrier affect deterioration? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Will the boxes fail under heave conditions? Are trapezoidal boxes appropriate and do they perform in an acceptable manner? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Which type of boxes are appropriate in each situation? Ã¢â¬ ¢ What are some of the construction considerations necessary to insure proper function of the boxes? Two configurations of boxes were used: Vertical Cell and Diagonal Type II. We will write a custom essay sample on Performance of Cardboard Carton Forms or any similar topic only for you Order Now Initial Test 1 procedure: It was initially decided to pour a test slab over 4 sets of void boxes. Each box was 4 ft x 4ft x 8 in deep. Concrete was poured on top and all around each box to simulate actual conditions. Four 1 ft x 1 ft steel forms were placed on top of each box for the purpose of loading each box at different intervals to determine if they had deteriorated. All boxes for the first test were vertical cell. Each box was placed with different conditions: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Void box with no poly anywhere Ã¢â¬ ¢ Void box with poly wrapped all around Ã¢â¬ ¢ Void box with poly on top only Ã¢â¬ ¢ Void box with poly on bottom only Test set up with boxes and loading pads Placing concrete over boxes. The procedure was to pour the concrete and test the capacity of the boxes once a week to determine the rate of deterioration. Description of results: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Week 1: Each box was loaded with 200 psf and no deflection was observed Ã¢â¬ ¢ Week 2: Each box was loaded with 400 psf with no deflection Ã¢â¬ ¢ Week 3: Each box was loaded with 400 psf with no deflection. The box with poly on bottom was flooded with water to accelerate deterioration Ã¢â¬ ¢ Week 4: Each box was loaded with 400 psf. The box that had been flooded with water had 3/8Ã¢â¬ deflection. All the other boxes had no deflection Ã¢â¬ ¢ Week 5: The test pad on the boxes with no poly and the one with poly on bottom were removed to view the boxes. It was discovered that the top of the cardboard had stuck to the concrete causing the cardboard to span across the opening thus giving erroneous information. Both of the boxes appeared to have significant strength but were destroyed in the removal process and could not be tested. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Week 6: The two remaining boxes, the one with poly all around and the one with poly on top had the concrete removed to expose the boxes. The boxes were tested with over 400 psf and still had plenty of capacity with little deterioration. The box with poly wrapped all around had a little water in the box, maybe a cupful, but this did not deteriorate the box. The source of the water is unknown, possibly from when the adjacent box was flooded with water. III. Test 2 Procedure: 1. Two vertical cell boxes with no wax were buried in sand and uncovered after one week to view the rate of deterioration: The boxes and loaded with a 50 pound weight and they immediately. 2. A Vertical Cells beam box with wax and a Diagonal Type Beam Box with wax were buried in sand for one week. The buried boxes were tested by standing on them, there was nominal deflection which indicates the wax has a definite impact on the deterioration rate. 3. Two vertical boxes with wax were buried in sand for three weeks. One was completely covered in poly and the other had no poly. Both boxes showed no appreciable deterioration after three weeks. Since the boxes with no wax failed after one week under the same conditions, it is assumed that the wax and the poly significantly slow deterioration. IV. Test 3 Procedure: Two boxes, one diagonal type box and one vertical cells were wrapped in poly with a cup of water added to simulate a 100% humidity condition. The next day, the vertical box collapsed immediately. The Diagonal box did not collapse Two boxes with no wax were buried in sand Box after one week sitting 50 pound block in middle except on the sides. A box with a capacity of only 200 psf was tested and failed with normal construction loads and therefore, considered not acceptable. V. Summary of Observations From Tests 1-3: 1. Testing the boxes from the top gives unsatisfactory results. . The bottom of the boxes deteriorate first and destroys the glue between the verticals and the bottom on the Vertical boxes. 3. Covering the bottom of the boxes with poly (the top of the sub-grade) slows down or stops the deterioration of the boxes. 4. There is not enough moisture coming out of the slab to deteriorate the boxes. 5. The Diagonal boxes are very weak on the sides and very s trong in the middle. 6. The Diagonal boxes deteriorate slower because of the wax impregnation. 7. Boxes with no wax seem to deteriorate at an acceptable rate. 8. Covering the entire box with poly stopped any deterioration. VI. Initial Conclusions: 1. Boxes should be tested from the bottom, not the top. Since expansive soil heaves, the boxes should be tested from the bottom. The initial deterioration is on the bottom and therefore, the box is weaker when loaded from the bottom. 2. Boxes under the slab should be constructed with no wax if possible. 3. Diagonal Type boxes which are wax impregnated and have strong vertical and diagonal members deteriorate much slower and they possibly stay too strong under slabs. . New tests were devised using waterbeds to load the void boxes from the bottom. Refer to the description of waterbed tests. VII. Test 4: Water Bed Test It was determined by the initial testing procedure that the void boxes need to be tested in place from the bottom. A 25 ft x 37 ft test slab was built with one of the purposes to test the void boxes and another purpose was to test analytical methods of designing flat slabs for houses. Fi ve waterbeds were placed below the sub-grade under the void boxes. One was queen size and four were twin size. Three of the waterbeds had Vertical Boxes with no wax on top of them, one had fully waxed Vertical beam boxes and one had a Diagonal slab box. The purpose of using the waterbeds was an attempt to simulate actual heaving of soil and to test an in place situation on an actual project. The waterbed was buried in the subgrade while constructing the slab. After a period of time, the waterbeds were filled to see if the void boxes collapse or if pressure is exerted on the slab indicating full capacity boxes without deterioration. Steel rods were welded to plates which rested on top of the sub-grade above the waterbed. This rod was sleeved through the slab with pvc pipe. The purpose of these indicator rods was that when the waterbed filled up, if the top of the rod raised up also, the void boxes collapsed. VIII. Results The Water Bed Test: Three weeks after the slab was poured, the waterbeds were filled. All five waterbed indicators rose quickly and to a maximum height of 7 inches. The void boxes were 8 inches deep at these points, therefore, the boxes were fully collapsed. No deflection or distress was observed in the slab therefore, the test was successful. Three of the test were done with a subgrade that had ? nch rain on it the night before placing the concrete. The waxed boxes were placed in a very dry, sandy subgrade in over 100 degree weather, trying to simulate the driest of conditions. Observation holes which were 4 inch in diameter were located to monitor the deterioration of the void boxes. It was observed that for approximately two weeks after the slab was poured, the humidity was very high in the void space with a great deal of heat generated. Slab indicators showing the Ã¢â¬Å"heavingÃ¢â¬ of the soil and therefore the failure of the boxes IX. Conclusions From Water Bed Tests: 1. After three weeks all boxes had lost enough strength to protect the slab from pressure. 2. After three weeks, even boxes which are waxed will fail adequately. All boxes tested were of the vertical cell type. 3. This test was very successful and the use of waterbeds is an excellent method to test void boxes. X. Test 5: Effect of Integral Retainers and Earth Forming: As published in the Fall, 1997 Proceedings of the Texas Section of The American Society of Civil Engineers, Mr. Robert Davis, P. E. tested trapezoidal void boxes to determine if they fail under construction loads. His conclusion was that trapezoidal boxes of the diagonal type fail when used under a grade beam. We have also seen this in the field and agree with the findings. However, some engineers still use the integral concrete retainers. This test was to determine if earth formed grade beams with trapezoidal boxes and the integral concrete retainers are appropriate. A testing apparatus was constructed to test different box and retainer configurations. The test was constructed to push up from the bottom with highly expansive fat clays below the simulated grade beam. Hydraulic jacks were used under the expansive soil to simulate the heaving of expansive soil. A weight equivalent to 200 psf was applied to the grade beam. The friction of the soil plus the bearing on the end of the concrete retainer caused the box to freely move upward. XI. Project Experience-Performance of Boxes under Grade Beams About the time of our tests, a construction project was completed using diagonal type beam boxes under formed concrete beams. Approximately 1000 feet of grade beams were set up in dry weather and normal conditions. The concrete was placed at inch slump and vibrated. After the forms were removed, it was discovered that approximately 20 percent of the void boxes failed. The contractor was instructed to chip off all excess concrete that invaded the void space which took approximately three days to accomplish. The next 1000 feet of grade beams were set up using vertical cell boxes under the same conditions with the same contractor. No boxes failed on this seco nd pour. View of failed boxes XII. Suggested Procedure for Filling Gaps The weakest point of failure for void boxes is on the ends and especially at the intersection with piers. After experimenting with several methods, I have found that common expandable foam as found in hardware stores works excellent in filling gaps and providing a tight form during construction. I recommend all gaps and holes between boxes and at the intersection with piers be filled with this foam. The cost is nominal for a typical project. Expandable Foam used to fill gaps XIII. Final Conclusions and Recommendations 1. All boxes must have moisture in order to deteriorate properly. Therefore, the boxes should not be completely wrapped in poly which is a common practice of contractors. . The moisture from the subgrade plus the hydration of the concrete appear to provide adequate deterioration of the boxes. The void boxes appear to fail from the bottom to the top. 3. A moisture barrier (polyethylene) should not be used below the boxes because it does not allow deterioration from the subgrade below. 4. A moisture barrier (poly) on top of the boxes may affect the hydration of the concrete a nd therefore the humidity in the void space. This barrier also increases the probability of excessive shrinkage cracks and therefore should not be used for that reason. The question of if this barrier is necessary to prevent moisture migration through the slab and thus affect any floor covering is not a subject of this paper. However, this author has not encountered this problem and therefore, does not recommend placing a vapor barrier on top of the boxes. 5. A layer of ? inch thick masonite should be used on top of all boxes under a slab area. This distributes the concentrated loads due to the rebar bolsters and construction loads. It is our experience that the cardboard cover sheets supplied by the box manufacturers are not adequate for the construction loads. Masonite of less thickness will curl and is not recommended. Plywood or OSB board is not recommended because of termites. 6. Trapezoidal boxes should not be used because the concrete retainers transfer forces from the expanding soil to the concrete beam above. There is also evidence that these boxes fail during construction if they are of the diagonal cell configuration. 7. Expandable foam should be used to fill all gaps between boxes and at pier locations. REFERENCE: www. foundationperformance. org AUTHOR NAME _ DAVID K. ISBELL, P. E. How to cite Performance of Cardboard Carton Forms, Essay examples
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Price Elascity of Demand BY vtc901ee The price elasticity of demand (PED) is a measure of how much the quantity demanded of a good responds to a change in price of the good (Mankiw 2007, p. 90). It is a form of measure to determine how willing consumers are to move away from the good as the price of the good rises. Most of the time, there are factors that determines the PED, such as availability of close substitutes, necessities versus luxuries, definition of the market and time horizon. In order to calculate the PED, a formula is calculated using the percentage change in the quantity demanded divided y the percentage change in the price. Elastic demand that has the coefficient of greater than 1 suggests that there would be a significant change in quantity demanded when there is a little change in price while inelastic demand has a coefficient of less than one, which has a little change in quantity demanded even when there is a significant change in price. Unitary demand occurs when there is a coefficient of exactly one and there is an exact change in quantity demanded in proportion to the change in price (Bolotta et al. 2002). There are two ways to calculate the PED. Firstly, it is called the point method or also nown as geometrical method (DEISU 2008). Under this method, we measure the elasticity of demand at any point of a demand curve using the formula, Elasticity at any point on the straight line can be calculated using the point method provided that the demand line is linear. The better way to calculate the PED is by using the midpoint method, which is to calculate the PED between two points on a demand curve by averaging the 2 initial and final points chosen. The midpoint approach averages the prices and quantities demanded, thus arriving at an average elasticity estimate for the range of values covered on the demand curve. The formula is, The product that is chosen to explain the theory of PED is rice. Rice is one of the perfect examples of inelastic demand applied in todays world, especially in Malaysia. There was an interesting finding made by Nik Mustapha and other researchers, where they find that rice tends to be inelastic, showing that rice has already occupied a special position in Malaysian diet as it is a staple food among the population (FEMI-JPM 2008). Other countries in Asia are also affected by the demand for rice. In Thailand, the export price elasticity of demand for rice is ranged -1. 2 and -1. 9, which shows that it is an inelastic demand (FEMI-JPM 2008). The graph would be similar to Figure 3, whereby it has a steeper slope. This indicates that the consumer would pay at almost any price set in the market for the good as it is a necessity in food for them. The PED of the rice is important in terms of their pricing decisions as the total revenue can change along the demand curve, and this in return depends on the PED. In this case, rice is considered to be inelastic, and for all inelastic demands, an increase in price will have an increase in total revenue (Mankiw 2007, p. 95). However, this is also crucial in determining the maximum profit that can be made using the PED. If all the farmers have good harvest, a large drop in price is necessary to encourage consumers to use the additional grain (Ingrimayne. com) this will cause the farmers income to decrease, thus it is important to know the PED of the rice. For instance, if the quantity of rice increases by 20%, it means that there could be a decrease of price by 40%. In explaining on how the tax being imposed by the government can affects the production of rice, a fully labelled market diagram for rice (inelastic demand) is illustrated. Consumer surplus is the extra amount consumers are willing to pay from the ctual price whereas producer surplus is the amount sellers are paid for a good minus the sellers cost of providing it (Mankiw 2007, pp. 139-144). Before the government impose tax on rice, consumer surplus and producer surplus are determined by equilibrium of price in the market. By imposing the tax on rice, the quantity of rice sold falls and there is a wedge between the price that buyers pay and the price that sellers receive. Both surpluses are reduced because there is tax revenue imposed by the government, resulting in a deadweight loss, a condition where a fall in surplus exceeds tax revenue, a form of market distortion (Mankiw 007, p. 162). These tax revenues are classified as government revenue. Government revenue may differ depending on the size of the tax, as different tax size generates different tax revenue. Since an inelastic demand decreases the quantity produced by a little, it can be assumed that the deadweight loss is also smaller, causing the tax revenue to increase slightly, as shown in Figure 10. Next, we will discuss the tax burden of the production of rice. Tax incidence is the distribution of tax burden among the participants in the market. In the rice market, taxes imposed on the buyers and the sellers are the same no matter whether the tax s charged on buyers or sellers, but the only difference is that who will send the money to the government (Mankiw 2007, pp. 24-127). To prove that, the following are the examples when a tax is charged on either buyers or sellers: The overall social welfare will be clearly shown once the effects of tax have on the quantity and price of the product, as the change in the total welfare decreases the consumer surplus and producer surplus, and usually exceeds the tax revenue raised maximised as there is deadweight loss incurred in the process of taxation, causing the quantity of goods decrease